Children often lack iron, calcium, zinc, vitamins A and D … due to insufficient supplements in the diet; leads to malnutrition; mental retardation.
Specialist 2 Do Thi Ngoc Diep, Vice Chairman of Vietnam Nutrition Association, said that micronutrients play an important role in health, participating in physical development like muscle and bone, brain, nervous system; intellectual development; gender characteristics.
According to a survey by the National Institute of Nutrition in 2014-2015, the rate of children with zinc deficiency was 69.4% (of which 80.8% in mountainous areas and 71.6% in rural areas); Iron deficiency anemia in children 63.6%.
Lack of micronutrients leads to growth retardation and malnutrition such as underweight, stunting. Below are young vitamins and minerals that are often deficient and supplemented through micronutrients.
Iron is involved in the transport and storage of oxygen, metabolism of nutrients; create enzymes, create red blood cells. Iron deficiency is a major cause of anemia. Children are not provided with enough iron through diets that are vulnerable to underweight and mental retardation. Children are susceptible to gastrointestinal, respiratory and skin infections due to lack of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin A, B vitamins …
Mother should supplement iron-rich foods derived from plants and animals such as beef, chicken, liver, fish, eggs, ear fungus, sesame, amaranth, green beans, cheeks … Wood ear contains much iron, In 100g, there are 56mg of iron, 14.5mg of sesame, 12mg of pig liver and 9mg of beef liver, so it can be prioritized in the menu. Iron in foods is enhanced absorption if eaten with the same type of vitamin C rich, such as beef shared star fruit or vinegar oil mix.
Calcium plays a role in building bones, teeth, participating in blood coagulation, metabolizing some nutrients. According to the recommended nutritional needs for Vietnamese people in 2016, children 0-5 months need 300mg per day; provide 400mg of calcium for children 6-8 months, 9-11 months; 1-2 year olds are 500mg, 3-5 years old need 600mg …
If calcium is deficient, children often slowly teething. Teething causes children to chew and swallow badly, leading to poor absorption of digestion. Foods rich in this kind of vegetables such as green vegetables, shrimps, shrimp, black beans, cheese … Black beans are more calcium than green beans, so they can be prioritized.
100g of dried shrimp contains 2,000mg of calcium; 100g of copper shrimp has 1,120mg of calcium. The shrimps have more calcium than shrimps. If the baby is older, the mother can feed the baby regularly. Fish cooked to eat whole bones will provide more calcium for the body. Milk and dairy products are high in calcium, about 120mg of fresh milk in 100ml, more calcium milk, and about 900-1,000mg of calcium in 100ml. If you choose milk calcium supplements contribute to providing enough daily needs.
Iodine is involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormones. This substance is also involved in the metabolism of nutrients, the growth of the central nervous system, the hormonal system, so the lack of young iodine is prone to stunting, damaging nerve cells. .
If iodine deficiency is from the womb, the birth is congenital hypothyroidism, older children may be dull, goiter. The menu of children should be supplemented with iodine-rich foods such as sea fish and seaweed. Using salt, iodine supplement for cooking is a preventive solution for iodine deficiency.
Zinc participates in more than 300 enzymes for chemical reactions in the body, participates in the metabolism of nutrients and cell division, reproductive and immune functions. Zinc deficiency causes children to be physically retarded, malnourished, reduce resistance, prone to infections and reduce fertility.
Gastrointestinal and metabolic disorders, immunodeficiency are also manifestations of this condition. Your child’s daily diet can supplement zinc through foods like shrimp, crab, oysters, clams, beef, chicken, cereal grains, cheese …
Young vitamins are often deficient such as vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B group. Dry corneal ulcers are the result of lack of vitamin A. Meanwhile, lack of vitamin D, children often rickets, vitamin B deficiency is easy to make babies tired, not sleeping well …
Cod liver oil, especially in fatty fish; Liver and mammal fat in the sea is rich in vitamin D. B vitamins like folic acid are found in butter, liver, eggs, peanuts; dark green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, spinach, asparagus …
Vitamin A-rich plant-based foods such as red and yellow fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, carrots, watermelon, papaya, and gac …; darker vegetables such as spinach, amaranth, nymph, sage, and mustard; Palm oil and other edible oils.
However, if bought long, improperly stored, cooked, fried with too high temperatures can lose up to 95% of micronutrients. Vitamins are easy to lose during processing if chopped vegetables, soak food too long in water, cook with plenty of water, open the lid when cooking. When processing food for children, mother should pay attention.
Children lack micronutrients because their parents do not have sufficient knowledge to supplement their children. To provide enough micronutrients according to the Recommended dietary allowance (RDA), parents should choose natural ingredients, in addition to processed foods that are fortified with micronutrients.
However, the micronutrients in each age, gender, level of physical activity … will be different. From the recommended nutritional needs, nutritionists have come up with practical guidelines, manufacturers offer nutritional labeling. On the nutrition label, mothers can refer to the daily nutritional value and ingredients (Percent of daily value, called% DV).
The daily nutritional value indicates how much the product provides for that body’s nutrient needs. For example, on a 15% calcium pack, meaning that the food provides 15% of calcium per day, this 15% figure is calculated at 2,000kcal daily energy needs for sedentary men. .
Parents can choose pre-processed foods that are fortified with micronutrients by looking at the labels of manufacturers. These foods can be mentioned as milk, biscuits, flour …